There are two principal categories of estimation methods for calculating infant and child mortality rates: direct and indirect. Direct methods of calculation use data on the date of birth of children, their survival status, and the dates of death or ages at death of deceased children. Indirect methods use information on survival status of children to specific cohorts of mothers, typically age cohorts or time since first birth cohorts. The direct methods require data that are usually obtained only in specifically designed surveys with birth histories or from vital statistics systems which are generally deficient in less-developed countries. The indirect methods can utilize data that are commonly collected in censuses and many general surveys: the number of children ever born and the number living to women and the age or time since first birth for the women. Both types of methods can suffer from errors in data. Both methods suffer, probably equally, from the omission of deceased children.
52.216-15 Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.
FAR Smart Matrix. Chapter 99 CAS. DOD Deviations.
To select a survey sample, it happens that one does not have a frame containing the desired collection units, but rather another frame of units linked in a certain way to the list of collection units. It can then be considered to select a sample from the available frame in order to produce an estimate for the desired target population by using the links existing between the two. This can be designated by Indirect Sampling. Estimation for the target population surveyed by Indirect Sampling can constitute a big challenge, in particular if the links between the units of the two are not one-to-one.
The problem comes especially from the difficulty to associate a selection probability, or an estimation weight, to the surveyed units of the target population. The GWSM provides an estimation weight for every surveyed unit of the target population. Third, we present some properties of the GWSM such as unbiasedness and transitivity.
Fourth, we consider the special case where the links between the two populations are expressed by indicator variables. Fifth, some special typical linkages are studied to assess their impact on the GWSM. Finally, we consider the problem of optimality. We obtain optimal weights in a weak sense for specific values of the variable of interest , and conditions for which these weights are also optimal in a strong sense and independent of the variable of interest.
Articles and reports: X Description: To select a survey sample, it happens that one does not have a frame containing the desired collection units, but rather another frame of units linked in a certain way to the list of collection units.
When Direct and Indirect Ion Selective Electrode Results Conflict
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Geologists often need to know the age of material that they find. They use absolute dating methods, sometimes called numerical dating, to give rocks an actual date, or date range, in number of years. This is different to relative dating, which only puts geological events in time order. Most absolute dates for rocks are obtained with radiometric methods. These use radioactive minerals in rocks as geological clocks. The atoms of some chemical elements have different forms, called isotopes.
Image Source. We can determine the relative age of objects by comparing the different types in terms of certain technical criteria. The underlying principle is usually that all forms of technical criteria. The underlying principle is usually that all forms of technical proficiency are subject to an evolutionary process of development.
Adjusted indirect comparison (including mixed treatment comparison) Date of preparation: February NPR09/ Methods for indirect comparison can be.
Chronological dating , or simply dating , is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology. This usually requires what is commonly known as a “dating method”. Several dating methods exist, depending on different criteria and techniques, and some very well known examples of disciplines using such techniques are, for example, history , archaeology , geology , paleontology , astronomy and even forensic science , since in the latter it is sometimes necessary to investigate the moment in the past during which the death of a cadaver occurred.
Other markers can help place an artifact or event in a chronology, such as nearby writings and stratigraphic markers. Dating methods are most commonly classified following two criteria: relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating methods are unable to determine the absolute age of an object or event, but can determine the impossibility of a particular event happening before or after another event of which the absolute date is well known.
In this relative dating method, Latin terms ante quem and post quem are usually used to indicate both the most recent and the oldest possible moments when an event occurred or an artifact was left in a stratum , respectively. But this method is also useful in many other disciplines. Historians, for example, know that Shakespeare’s play Henry V was not written before because Shakespeare’s primary source for writing his play was the second edition of Raphael Holinshed ‘s Chronicles , not published until That means that the play was without fail written after in Latin, post The same inductive mechanism is applied in archaeology, geology and paleontology, by many ways.
Non-Radiogenic Dating Methods for the Past , Years Other researchers have found halos produced by an indirect radioactive decay effect called hole.
This document specifies a reference method using transmission electron microscopy for the determination of airborne asbestos fibres and structures in in a wide range of ambient air situations, including the interior atmospheres of buildings, and for a detailed evaluation for asbestos structures in any atmosphere. The specimen preparation procedure incorporates ashing and dispersion of the collected particulate, so that all asbestos is measured, including the asbestos originally incorporated in particle aggregates or particles of composite materials.
The lengths, widths and aspect ratios of the asbestos fibres and bundles are measured, and these, together with the density of the type of asbestos, also allow the total mass concentration of airborne asbestos to be calculated. The method allows determination of the type s of asbestos fibres present. The method cannot discriminate between individual fibres of the asbestos and elongate fragments cleavage fragments and acicular particles from non-asbestos analogues of the same amphibole mineral .
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Methods of Relative (Indirect) Age Determination used in Archaeology : Part 2
A complex data collection system involving seven community based practices and a university affiliated hospital has been developed. Four types of data are being collected: 1 medical status, 2 billings for a six month period, 3 patient reports of direct and indirect costs for a six month period and how they affected family finances and 4 diaries of direct and indirect costs for a week in which treatment was received and a week in which treatment was not received.
Three groups are involved in collecting these data: physicians, their office staff and a central project telephone interviewer. Office staff are paid overtime rates for their work which is in addition to their regular responsibilities. Telephone follow-up interviews have contributed to compliance and have helped insure consistency in the data.
2) billings for a six month period, 3) patient reports of direct and indirect costs Two hundred and fifteen patients have provided complete information to date.
Indirect observation is a recent concept in systematic observation. It largely involves analyzing textual material generated either indirectly from transcriptions of audio recordings of verbal behavior in natural settings e. It may also feature seemingly unobtrusive objects that can provide relevant insights into daily routines. All these materials constitute an extremely rich source of information for studying everyday life, and they are continuously growing with the burgeoning of new technologies for data recording, dissemination, and storage.
Narratives are an excellent vehicle for studying everyday life, and quantitization is proposed as a means of integrating qualitative and quantitative elements. However, this analysis requires a structured system that enables researchers to analyze varying forms and sources of information objectively. In this paper, we present a methodological framework detailing the steps and decisions required to quantitatively analyze a set of data that was originally qualitative.
We provide guidelines on study dimensions, text segmentation criteria, ad hoc observation instruments, data quality controls, and coding and preparation of text for quantitative analysis. The quality control stage is essential to ensure that the code matrices generated from the qualitative data are reliable.
Image Source. In prehistoric archaeology, geographical methods are of importance in the determination of the relative age of archaeological finds. I have already pointed out the importance of stratification when deposits are found in the open veld, in caves and rock shelters, in rubbish heaps associated with ruins, etcetera. At these sites the lowest layers are usually the oldest, while the topmost layers are of more recent origin we have already discussed the terraces of rivers, where the sequence is reversed.
Indirect identification. Document date: Methods of statistical disclosure control can help to prevent the risk of Indirect identification. RELATED.
Science in Christian Perspective. Radiometric Dating. A Christian Perspective. Roger C. Wiens has a PhD in Physics, with a minor in Geology. His PhD thesis was on isotope ratios in meteorites, including surface exposure dating. Radiometric dating–the process of determining the age of rocks from the decay of their radioactive elements–has been in widespread use for over half a century. There are over forty such techniques, each using a different radioactive element or a different way of measuring them.
It has become increasingly clear that these radiometric dating techniques agree with each other and as a whole, present a coherent picture in which the Earth was created a very long time ago. Further evidence comes from the complete agreement between radiometric dates and other dating methods such as counting tree rings or glacier ice core layers. Many Christians have been led to distrust radiometric dating and are completely unaware of the great number of laboratory measurements that have shown these methods to be consistent.
Many are also unaware that Bible-believing Christians are among those actively involved in radiometric dating.